Article Written by Alex Gale on behalf of Convergent3D
As US forces look increasingly set to withdraw from Overseas Contingency Operations (OCOs), the balance between fatalities and injuries suffered in combat versus in training is beginning to shift with greater emphasis on the latter.
The Trump Administration’s deal with the Taliban has set the stage for a complete withdrawal of US personnel in Afghanistan after nearly two decades of fighting. Similarly, only about 5,200 personnel remain in Iraq, a small number compared to the roughly 168,000 troops stationed in the country during the 2007 surge. For most troops now, the greatest risks they will face will be in training.
A recent report by the Congressional Research Service reveals that more US service personnel are killed in training than on the front lines. In the period between 2006-2018, 31.9% of active duty military fatalities occurred because of accidents, whereas 16.3% were killed in action. Of those deaths, 73% occurred in circumstances unrelated to war. US personnel are posted all over the world, but the majority of those killed between 2006-2018 have died on US soil, at 93%.
Accidental deaths are problematic for all the services. Last year, the Army alone, reported that 20 soldiers had been killed in training alongside a further 70 who had been seriously injured. This was a slight increase on the year before, in which 18 died and 66 were injured. Accidents also contributed to the $362 million the Army lost as a result of damaged or lost equipment in non-combat related circumstances.
For soldiers and marines in particular, one of the most significantly reoccurring accidents in training is that of vehicles rolling over. A number of cases in recent years has highlighted the risks to personnel of vehicle rollovers, especially in rough terrain or in situations where visibility is limited.
Among the most recent cases was one in March this year, in which 20-year-old Marine Cpl. Eloiza Zavala was killed when the Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacement she was in rolled over during a training exercise in the United Arab Emirates. Two others were injured in the incident.
Rollovers are not isolated to a single vehicle type. In October 2019, three soldiers lost their lives when their armored vehicle rolled over during training at Fort Steward in Georgia. The vehicle rolled over into water at approximately 3:20 a.m., suggesting that difficult terrain and low-light conditions may have played a part in the accident. Three other soldiers were injured in the incident but survived the ordeal.
The persistent rate of training fatalities comes at a time of changing focus for the US armed forces. For about two decades, the US has been focused on counterinsurgency and asymmetrical warfare, but the 2018 National Defense Strategy has shifted attention back to conventional peer-peer based conflict. Training has shifted too, to reflect this change. Troops are practicing maneuvers in heavier formations suitable for large-scale ground combat.
During a House Armed Services Committee hearing on March 3, Army Chief of Staff Gen. James McConville commented on the issue, saying: “I’m very concerned about some of the training exercises we had where we’re starting to have vehicles roll-over and people not wearing seat-belts — and we lost some soldiers very tragically,”
McConville discussed the Army’s reacquaintance with large-scale maneuvers and conventional warfighting as a challenge faced in training in addition to the momentous task of instructing the Army’s annual intake of 130,000 new soldiers on crucial capabilities, such as driving their vehicles.
McConville also pointed out that, “All of sudden you have armored vehicles moving in very difficult terrain.” Indeed, difficult terrain seems to be a contributor to several accidents. For example, Marine 1st Lt. Conor McDowell was tragically killed when his Light Armored Vehicle (LAV) rolled into a ditch during a training exercise at Camp Pendleton, California in May last year. The thick vegetation prevented the driver from seeing the oncoming danger and the vehicle rolled over.
Providing the frequency of combat operations continues to fall, it is inevitable that the number of service personnel killed in training will remain higher than those killed in action. However, serious efforts should be made to reduce fatalities in training.
The armed forces may look to adjust training and operating procedures to promote greater safety. Equally, there are incentives for the private sector to invest in developing technologies which can improve vehicle safety for personnel.
Traditionally, the focus of crew survivability has been on preventing the enemy from carrying out a successful attack. For instance, armor plating can offset the damage of a rocket propelled grenade. Increasingly however, there is a need to address less obvious enemies, such as impaired visibility and rough terrain. Innovations which help troops deal with these adversaries should become a priority.
Article Written by Alex Gale on behalf of Convergent3D
For armed forces personnel, operating wheeled and tracked vehicles is a daily and often mundane reality of military life, but it can also be a dangerous one. Statistics from the Defense Casualty Analysis System (DCAS) indicate that between 2006-2018, 31.9 % of all active-duty military deaths were caused by accidents. A significant number of these deaths involved vehicles and in particular, vehicle rollovers.
According to a report by the Congressional Research Service, over a 12-year period approximately 16 % of all Non-Overseas Contingency Operation (non-OCO) fatalities involved vehicles. More broadly, accidents between 2006-2018 have accounted for 4,827 deaths during non-OCO’s.
Fatalities caused by vehicle rollovers and accidents are not a uniquely American problem. NATO allies face similar risks. For example, an MoD report reveals that in 2018, 16 % of fatalities amongst British regular armed forces personnel were caused by “land transport accidents”.
Rollovers are more likely to occur when vehicles are passing through rough terrain or being driven at night. During operations and in training, vehicles will often be driven off road under the cover of darkness, but the lack of visibility makes it harder for drivers to spot oncoming hazards.
Concerns were raised in the US last year that the high number of military vehicle accidents were being exacerbated by a shortage of equipment and insufficient training. Some spare parts are also in short supply. Former Senate Budget Committee staffer Rick Berger suggested that the time troops spend maintaining old vehicles has detracted from crucial time spent training, contributing further to the likelihood of accidents.
In 2018, the House Armed Services Committee voiced similar fears and pointed out that some of the Marine Corps vehicles are decades old, such as the Assault Amphibious Vehicle (AAV), which has been in service since 1972 and the Light Armored Vehicle (LAV) which has seen service since 1983.
A broad range of vehicles used by the military are susceptible to rolling over. In May last year, a light armored vehicle rolled over during a training exercise in Camp Pendleton, killing one marine and injuring six others. Another incident, one month prior, tragically led to the death of Sgt. Joshua Braica when his Polaris MRZR rolled over during training.
In June 2019, Guard Staff Sgt. David W. Gallagher was killed, and three others injured when a tank experienced a rollover during training in Fort Irwin, California.
This year in March, marine Cpl. Eloiza Zavala was killed when a 7-ton Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacement (MTVR) rolled over during an overseas training exercise in the United Arab Emirates. Two other marines were injured in the incident, one seriously. All three marines were motor vehicle operators.
Rollovers are also hazardous during operations. British Pathfinder Capt. David Blakeley, who barely survived an incident in which his Land Rover flipped over during an operation in Iraq, wrote of his ordeal: “I passed out with the impact. I came to sometime later with the weight of the wagon on top of me, and in total agony.” His rescue was successful, despite challenges posed by low visibility and the prospect of enemy artillery fire.
Others have not been so lucky. US Army reservist Spc. Antonio I was killed in January 2020 when his vehicle rolled over during a route-clearing operation in Syria.
Stories like these are all too common. Risk is an expected aspect of military service, but service personnel should not be losing their lives in preventable vehicle accidents, especially during training. The families of fatally injured personnel have successfully lobbied Congress to pay closer attention to the issue.
Cary Russell, the director of the defense capabilities and management team at the Government Accountability Office (GAO) has said that his team is now examining military-wide practices and policies which could prevent future rollovers and accidents. They will also be paying close attention to the statistics and collection of relevant data. Previously, the GAO has investigated the comparable issue of military aviation accidents.
Following a number of rollover incidents in the summer of 2019, Command Sgt. Maj Michael Grinston highlighted the issue, saying: “Army motor vehicle mishaps are the number one killer of on-duty soldiers.” CSM Grinston cited training as one of the causes and stated that, “inadequate unit driver training programs contribute to 68 % of these mishaps”.
Individually, every fatality caused by military vehicle rollovers is a tremendous tragedy for the friends and family of the deceased service member. Collectively, the armed forces are needlessly losing talented personnel they have invested significant time and resources on. Hopefully these losses of life will spur the forces to make greater efforts in finding technical and doctrinal solutions which can prevent future accidents from claiming lives.
Article Written by Alex Gale on behalf of Convergent3D
Imagine this scenario. You’re the vehicle commander in an armored reconnaissance vehicle and today you have been tasked with leading your team during another training exercise. It’s early morning and the sun hasn’t yet risen. Visibility is poor, but you have opted for an off-road route to minimize the chances of detection by the enemy. The ground is uneven and steep, and the thick vegetation has significantly hindered your visibility. As a result, your vehicle crawls ahead at an excruciatingly slow speed. Despite your best efforts, you don’t see the ditch ahead of you. The call goes out but the vehicle slides into the ditch and rolls over. You’re utterly disorientated as you turn and begin to scan the interior of the vehicle for casualties.
Combat fatalities amongst service personnel feature prominently in the public’s imagination, but less attention is paid to injuries and deaths caused by training. During the 2019 fiscal year, there were 14 deaths in the Army involving vehicles, eight of which were caused by vehicles rolling over. Examining the statistics is important, but analyzing individual cases is also crucial to determine reoccurring causes of these incidents. A reoccurring theme in many such accidents is rough terrain and poor visibility.
On June 6, last year, West Point Cadet Christopher J. Morgan was killed during a rollover incident which happened during training. 19 other cadets and two soldiers suffered non-life-threatening injuries, including a broken arm and a facial abrasion. Presently, a detailed report of the accident has not yet been made public, but a staff sergeant onboard the vehicle is facing a court martial for involuntary manslaughter and several other charges.
Of the details available about the accident, there are some clues which fit the broader pattern of military vehicle rollovers. Two soldiers were transporting 19 cadets at approximately 6:45 in the morning in a M1085 MTV long wheelbase cargo truck. The cadets were en route to a land navigation training exercise when the vehicle rolled over near Camp Natural Bridge, roughly eight miles from the main West Point Campus.
In a press conference following the accident, Lt. General Darryl William said that, “it is not common for these vehicles to turn over” but pointed out the rough hilly terrain and the hazards it poses to drivers.
On May 9, 2019, another rollover incident claimed the life of Marine 1st Lt. Conor McDowell during training at Camp Pendleton, California. Prior to the accident, McDowell and his light armored vehicle (LAV) platoon were tasked with conducting reconnaissance of Canyon Road as part of a route reconnaissance exercise. A division sized movement was expected to follow after the LAV platoon’s recon of the area.
McDowell ordered his platoon to move off road and use the thick vegetation to screen their movement. This was done according to sound military rationale. Roads offer little concealment and the vehicles can kick up dust signatures which are easily spotted by the opposing force. Moreover, insurgents in Afghanistan and Iraq have left roads riddled with IEDs, so soldiers and marines have adapted to take less obvious routes where possible.
Unfortunately, the near six-foot tall grass which provided ideal concealment also made it harder for the driver to see clearly ahead. The LAV crew took care to drive extremely slowly, but the driver could still see barely five feet ahead and the vehicle rolled into a 15-foot washout and landed upside down. McDowell reportedly spent the final moments of his life warning his fellow marines of the impending rollover. A command investigation concluded that the accident was caused by a “terrain feature that became too late to avoid”.
Going forward, it may be difficult for the military to find solutions which prevent these accidents. Operating in hostile terrain is often a necessity and personnel need exposure to realistic conditions in training. Likewise, on operations and in training driving with impaired vision, caused either by low-light conditions or obstructing terrain, is frequently unavoidable. Consequently, solutions are likely to stem from new technologies which permit greater visibility in adverse conditions and greater onboard safety in the event of an accident. The military may also adopt new training methods and standard operating procedures which seek to maximize safety. However, significant changes to training conditions and route selection during operations are less likely to occur, given the nature of risks deemed acceptable within a military context.
Tactical Vehicle Rollover Accidents are becoming an increasingly visible risk to US Soldiers and Marines. These incidents are usually reported when there is the addition of a tragedy. These accidents make the news because of the serious injury or death of a servicemember. In these cases many of the costs are very obvious. The loss of life resulting in a grieving family, and a military unit stunned to silence from the death of a brother or sister, peer, and friend. In these incidents, we focus on that loss. The total cost, however, reaches deeper than those visible and emotional losses. Not every vehicle accident results in loss of life, but the costs associated with unit readiness, maneuver capability, training ability, and equipment repair mount very quickly.
According to Defense Industry Daily, based on awarded contracts, MaxxPro’s price per base vehicle is around $520,000 – $550,000. The vehicles must then be fitted with electronics, IED jammers, and other equipment. That can add hundreds of thousands of dollars to that base price, before they’re sent to the front lines. As a leader responsible for 18 MRAP Series Vehicles and four MaxxPro Dash ISS vehicles, it isn’t uncommon for a single company commander to have responsibility for $20 Million in vehicles. In these financial terms, every military vehicle accident is much closer to destroying a Bugatti Veyron (with prices over $1 million) than it is to a fender bender in a Camry.
Each Military Vehicle Accident where there is damage to equipment or any injury to a servicemember is investigated fully. That requires assignment of an Investigating Officer who then gathers evidence, speaks to those involved, documents all findings in accordance with military regulations and procedures, and presents findings to the Commanding Officer. The command level that addresses these incidents is usually at the Battalion or Brigade level for equipment loss, and the Division or higher level (General Officers in Command) for incidents that involve loss of life or serious injury. In the military it is difficult to quantify the cost of man hours. All active duty military personnel are salaried, and the hours worked are not tracked with any consistency. The total time spent by those investigating these accidents, reporting findings, and making command decisions, however, is at the cost of unit effectiveness, readiness, and/or operational and training efficiency.
In a combat environment, a vehicle rollover incident causes delays to operations, requires the investigating officer to travel to additional forward operating bases and combat outposts, and takes all servicemembers involved in the investigation away from primary duties. Each investigation brings with it additional risk and exposure in a combat environment and operational risk from servicemembers and units not on patrol or performing primary duties.
These equipment and man hour costs mount very quickly when there is serious or catastrophic damage to a vehicle in a rollover. When a servicemember is killed in the incident, the fiscal cost skyrockets. The human cost is very visible and felt by anyone exposed to the visuals of a grieving family, military unit, and community. The financial cost of a servicemember killed is played out through Servicemembers Group Life Insurance (SGLI), the Military Family Death Gratuity, 180 days of family housing after the incident, the Dependency and Indemnity Compensation, Uniformed Services Survivor Benefit Plan, and continued benefits the family of the deceased receives. These necessary costs to support the families of services members after an incident like this can easily exceed $1 Million per service member. SGLI pays a max of $400,000 or $800,000 if the servicemember dies in combat in life insurance payouts. According to defense.gov the death gratuity program provides for a special tax-free payment of $100,000 to eligible survivors of members of the Armed Forces, who die while on active duty or while serving in certain reserve statuses. The death gratuity is the same regardless of the cause of death.
With vehicles valued at $500,000 to $1.5 million and death benefits to the families of servicemembers killed valued at $500,000 to $1 million, each Military Tactical Vehicle Rollover carries with it remarkable fiscal cost. We highlight this not to diminish the focus on the human cost, but because government department and agency decision-making always has a financial factor at play. These incidents are preventable with technology that is currently available, including that offered by Convergent3D. Each vehicle rollover prevented avoids the tragic human cost as well as millions of dollars in unnecessary costs to taxpayers.
Preventing Military Vehicle Rollovers
A vehicle rollover in Syria on January 25th, 2020 that killed a United States Army Reserve soldier is yet another reminder of the danger and frequency of this type of accident that the military experiences so often. Specialist Antonio Moore, 22, from Wilmington, NC, died in Syria when his vehicle rolled over during a route clearance operation. He was a member of the 363rd Engineer Battalion.
In 2019 at least 15 Soldiers and Marines were killed in vehicle training accidents. These accidents are often the result of operating heavy military vehicles on uneven terrain at night. That was the case for the three soldiers killed early in the morning October 20th, 2019 when their vehicle fell from a bridge and landed upside down in water below. Sergeant First Class Bryan Jenkins, Corporal Thomas Walker, and Private First Class Antonio Garcia belonged to 1st Armored Brigade and were training for the unit’s scheduled rotation to the Army’s National Training Center in California.
When Soldiers and Marines are operating military vehicles at night on uneven terrain there are obvious risks. Driving an uparmored wheeled military vehicle such as the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) MAXXPRO is very different than driving a civilian vehicle on the road. The military vehicle requires licensing and expertise to operate as well as a truck commander in the passenger seat to issue maneuver commands and provide additional observation around the vehicle for obstacles, threats, and hazards. The windshield and side windows on the MRAP series of vehicles are typically made from a thick laminated ballistic glass and have much less visibility than the average civilian car.
The US Army and Marine Corps have long implemented safety training in the event of a vehicle rollover. In most cases this training consists of a HMMWV cab on a frame that slowly turns the cab and occupants upside down in a controlled environment. This training allows servicemembers to experience the disorientation of the inverted vehicle and work on techniques for exiting the vehicle safely. This exercise also shows the trainees how the vehicle personnel restraint systems and personal protective equipment works. The training, however, may not be addressing the real risks.
In the cases mentioned at the beginning of this article as well as in others in 2019, the Soldiers and Marines killed in each accident died on impact or shortly afterwards. The conditions of each rollover incident vary, but the training mentioned above assumes that the cab of the vehicle remains intact throughout the rollover. As reported by the Army Times, “Cadet Christopher J. Morgan, a member of the Class of 2020, died from his injuries after a vehicle rolled over on its way to field exercises at the U.S. Military Academy’s training area. Morgan died at the scene of the accident.” In another notable rollover incident from 2019, Conor McDowell, a 2017 graduate of The Citadel, died instantly when his vehicle rolled over in rough terrain during tactical maneuvers at Camp Pendleton, California. So many of these incidents indicate that the only way to prevent these deaths is to prevent the rollover in the first place.
The primary issue identified in many of these rollover cases is the visibility in uneven terrain at night. The concern here is that obstacles and hazards blend in with background images with the current vehicle night driver assist. Vehicles in the MRAP category have full motion video screens that display infrared images from sensors in various locations on the vehicle. The video displays and quality are notorious for causing motion sickness and requiring drivers to change positions in shifts while on patrol to prevent sickness. These camera and display systems do not allow correct depth perception and detail. At Convergent3D we believe there is a solution to these system shortfalls. While there are many factors in military vehicle rollovers, we look to improve on what we see as the primary concern, depth perception and visibility when driving on uneven terrain at night. The C3D Driver’s Vision Enhancer (DVE) solution allows drivers that much needed increased situational awareness.
Convergent3D provides one solution for a primary concern in military vehicle rollovers, but there are many factors at play in these tragedies. Training deaths have outnumbered combat deaths four to one in recent years and vehicle rollovers account for enough of these deaths to warrant active work on solutions. Additional concerns include range surveys ahead of training to identify possible obstacles and dangers, and vehicle maintenance after many years of hard use overseas. These concerns were major factors in the death of Conor McDowell (mentioned above). As information is made public after each of these events, especially those that occur in training, it is clear that there are more preventative measures available.
Understanding Military Vehicle Driver Risks
Military vehicles require different expertise, experience, and techniques to drive effectively. These vehicles, and the terrain they typically traverse require a very different approach, set of driver skills, and hardware/software assistance when compared to typical civilian vehicles and highway driving. One of the primary risks associated with military mounted operations (operations where the force is primarily moved by wheeled or tracked vehicle) is the assumption that driving techniques and risks translate directly from the civilian highway to the military operating environment. The United States Department of Defense has fully implemented, and long-standing procedures for military vehicle licensing and training as well as a full suite of driver assistance software and hardware, but Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, and Marines are still at significant risk of death or injury for non-combat related vehicular incidents. One of those primary risks is vehicular rollovers.
Tactical vehicle rollovers can be the result of a combination of driver fatigue, limited visibility, rough terrain, and lack of reconnaissance and data about the operating environment. Driver fatigue when driving military vehicles is a factor that operational leaders deliberately plan for and mitigate. Driver fatigue comes on much faster for military drivers when compared to typical highway driving. Military drivers are focusing on many more risk factors and operational needs. Those factors include obstacles in roads or obstacles when driving cross country, helping to maintain effective fields of fire for the gunner in the turret, listening to and complying with maneuver instructions from the truck commander, identifying and avoiding common improvised explosive device risk factors (roadside debris, culvert crossing procedures, interaction with the local population on the road, etc), and the challenge of maneuvering and driving a much larger and heavier vehicle. There are many more distractions to the driver in a military vehicle. In the vehicle there are usually multiple radio systems on speaker, special hardware and software technologies for IED detection, and tactical commands being issued with some related to and some unrelated to specific driver commands. All of these factors result in an exponentially more challenging driving environment.
Visibility when driving under military conditions is highly limited due to line of sight challenges for the driver, but is augmented by gunner visibility, truck commander situational awareness, and technology based systems in the vehicle built to increase driver awareness. Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) series vehicles are the most common wheeled vehicles used in overseas tactical environments today. These vehicles are elevated high off the ground and are heavy. The MRAP Category 1 MaxxPro built by International is a model with one of the highest order quantities and weighs in excess of 28,000 pounds and is 10 feet tall. Drivers have lines of visibility that limit what they can see in the immediate vehicle surroundings. This risk is limited when driving at higher speeds on asphalt roads with traffic lines. These vehicles, however, are typically employed at slow speeds and are required to make tight tactical maneuvers on poorly maintained or dirt roads and trails. These tendencies maximize that visibility risk.
Lack of recon and terrain data is one of the primary risks associated with tactical driving situations. These training and combat operations often involve cross country vehicle maneuver which exposes vehicle occupants to increased rollover risk. Terrain data and recon is one of the only increased risk factors that is not primarily caused by the vehicle form factor. When understanding rollover and collision risk it is clear that the vehicle form factor is the primary cause of many of these risks. The vehicles are heavy and tall. The windows are smaller and more difficult to see through. The vehicles have longer wheelbases and less maneuverability than their up-armored HMMWV predecessors. These factors increase driver and crew maneuver risk but are in place to mitigate the primary risk to those crews, which are the kinetic and explosive dangers of direct fire and improvised explosive devices. The challenge in reducing secondary battlefield risks like rollovers and vehicle collisions is that the vehicle form factor is driven by those primary risk factors. Convergent 3D’s software solution is built to increase driver visibility, truck commander terrain reconnaissance resources, and reduce rollover risk given that vehicle form factor. Our software algorithms and processes convert standard two-dimensional video input, and display the video as full-motion, real-time, three-dimensional output with realistic depth-of-field. A lenticular display lens is used to view the three dimensional video without need for special glasses. This kind of software solution that integrates into the systems currently deployed in these MRAP series vehicles dramatically increases driver awareness.
The increased risk of rollovers in military vehicles is
driven by the need to protect against a constantly evolving kinetic and
explosive threat. The United States Armed Forces and the supporting vehicle
vendors are innovating to reduce risk of injury and death to crews, but the
result is a vehicle at much higher rollover risk. Rollovers are killing service
members in worldwide operations and training domestically. Software solutions
like those presented by Convergent 3D offer options for reducing that risk
without compromising vehicle form factor.
The Post and Courier writes article on Convergent 3D, following the needless death of Lieutenant Conor McDowell. Click here to read the article
The problems with tank rollovers in our Armed Forces are a continued problem. Convergent 3D believes we have a wonderful software that can help to save the lives of those who serve our country. Click here to read the full article on a recent death of a Citadel graduate, Lieutenant Conor McDowell. https://www.postandcourier.com/news/a-citadel-graduate-died-in-a-training-accident-his-family/article_6d01725a-a7cd-11e9-bd47-cf1c4bec7fe6.html
September 1, 2019: Convergent 3D has announced that it has developed an innovative technology that could save lives and reduce accidents, not only in the military but also the automotive and maritime industries. Convergent 3D is encouraging other technology and technology-oriented companies to explore its software in their products and businesses. Moreover, the company is particularly asking military personnel to explore the true potential of its cost-effective, lifesaving technology. This tech allows the drivers of vehicles to maneuver with confidence and increased speed. “In the past, we have primarily targeted the Army and Marines because the software was developed in order to help prevent rollovers in unknown or difficult terrain,” said Amanda Fulmer, Communications Director for Convergent 3D. The software, trademarked, “We See Depth” ™ provides basically a 3D image without glasses. It uses a single camera, or multiple cameras, that gives the operator of a vehicle depth perception and increased situational awareness. “It has the capacity for numerous military, maritime and industrial applications.” Fulmer added.
Numerous soldiers and Marines have lost their lives or been injured during combat as well as training due to the vehicle rollovers. This technological solution is designed to prevent that from happening. As a result, it could save lives, reduce injuries, and mitigate equipment losses around the world. Convergent3D considers it to be one major solution to the military’s epidemic of vehicle deaths. It has been designed to save the lives of our young service men and women who serve our nation.
In addition to benefiting our country’s armed forces and the maritime industry, the software has applications to the trucking industry, the construction industry, A.I. technology, medical technology, safety companies, as well as the entertainment industry and gaming world. Based in Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, the company is led by a Vietnam veteran-turned-CEO, Dennis Drew, President, Ken Bergquist and team members. Convergent3D is a member of the National Advanced Mobility Consortium, NAMC.
Convergent3d (C3D) and the U.S. Army Night Vision & Electronic Sensor Directorate (NVESD) at Fort Belvoi.
A CRADA has been executed between Convergent3d (C3D) and the U.S. Army Night Vision & Electronic Sensor Directorate (NVESD) at Fort Belvoir. The Cooperative Reseach And Development Agreement (CRADA) undertakes the test and evaluation of C3D depth perception technology when incorporated in legacy Driver’s Vision Enhancer (DVE) systems.